The Arab Islamic World
3- The dynasties period (661-1517)
For about nine centuries, ten Arab and Muslim dynasties, as highlighted below, ruled vast areas of Asia , North Africa and Iberian peninsula. The rulers of these dynasties tried all possible means to spread Islam and implement the Sharia law but they all eventually failed and as a result Muslims and Arab states have plunged into chaotic disorder of weakness, corruptions and sectarian conflicts that claimed millions lives. Have a look at my book for more details.
Full details in my book ' The Islam Delusion - Volume 2'
The Omayyad Caliphate / dynasty
Established by Muawiya, the governor of Syria, during the reign of Ali, the last ruler of the Rightly Guided Caliphs. This was the first Islamic dynasty that was the outcome of the Islamic first civil war in which about seventy thousand lives were claimed.
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The Abbasid Caliphate/dynasty (750-1258)
The Abbasids claimed to be the true successors of Mohamed through their closer bloodline to him. The Abbasid considered Muawiya’s move to proclaim himself caliph, in 650, as trickery and an illegitimate act. Their open revolt to regain the caliphate was successful, when they defeated the Umayyad army in the Great Zab river battle that claimed thousands of Muslim' lives.
The Fatimid dynasty (909-1171)
The Fatimids belonged to the Ismaili Shiite Islamic sect and claimed to be direct descendants of Mohamed through his daughter, Fatima. They ruled across the Mediterranean coast of Africa, Egypt, and various territories in Sudan, Sicily, the Levant, and Hijaz.
The Buyid dynasty (945-1055)
This was an Islamic dynasty of mercenary soldiers from the Caspian province. It controlled western Iran and Iraq.
The Mamluk Sultanate & dynasty
The Mamluks (slaves warriors, mainly Turkish and Persian) were seen by Muslim rulers as cheap source to protect their prestige and domains. This investment turned to be one of the major elements that ended the Arab-Islamic empire. Some slaves exploited the military power vested in them to seize control over the legitimate political authorities.
Muslim dynasties in Spain / Al-Andalus
Muslims in Spain ended up being divided into many separate groups. The leftovers of the dynasties (Umayyad, Almoravid, Almohad, Marinids and Nasrid), who ruled Spain and North Africa for almost eight centuries. These groups were busy fighting each other over sectarian issues, political or personal gains. They became weak, scattered, vulnerable targets that started to fall one after the other to their western rivals, the Catholic Monarchs.