The Arab Islamic World

2- The four caliphs period (632-661)

The four direct successors of Mohamed (The Caliphs - Abu Baker, Omar, Uthman and Ali), reigned from 632 to 661 CE and were truly inspired by Mohamed’s teachings and his incentives. They had everything lined up for them to expand the Islamic empire in a short time beyond the Arabian Peninsula and into the territories of the neighbouring Byzantine and Sasanian Empires.

 

Let us keep in mind that during this period, right after Mohamed’s death, there were serious problems that were only solved by fighting and bloodshed; the revolt of Banu Hanifa , one of the largest tribes of Arabia seeking their freedom to leave Islam; the assassination of three out of the four righteous caliphs, due to sectarian conflicts and the war between the prophet’s nephew, Ali, and his wife, Ayesha,  for blood revenge.

Full details in my book ' The Islam Delusion - Volume 2'