top of page

1- The Argument from Motion

The Unmoved Mover. Nothing moves without a prior mover.

2- The Argument from Causation

The unmoved cause. Everything in the world has a cause and nothing is the cause of itself. 

3- The Argument from Contingency

There must have been a time when no physical things existed. However, if everything at one time did not exist, that means nothing existed – so there was nothing to cause the existence of everything else. But, since physical things exist now, then there must be a being with necessary existence, a being that was not brought into existence but has always existed and this being is called God.

4- The Argument from Degree

We notice that things in the world differ. There are degrees, say, of goodness or perfection but we judge these degrees only by comparison with a maximum. Humans can be both good and bad, so the maximum goodness cannot rest in us. Therefore, there must be some other maximum to set the standard for perfection, and that maximum is called God.

5-The Teleological – The Argument from Design

Things in the world, especially living things, look as though they have been designed. Nothing that we know looks designed unless it is designed. Therefore, there must have been a designer, and we call him God.

The 'Five Ways' argument

The Five Ways Argument's  main faults

1- The assumed prime mover should not necessarily be God by default. 

2- The assumed prime mover could be anything or any one of those thousands of deities that people have believed in

     for thousands of years?

3- There is no justification to exempt the assumed prime mover from the rule 'everything that exist must have a causer'

4- It does not prove that the assumed prime mover is a single being or multiple beings.


In my book 'The Islam Delusion - Volume 1 , Chapter 6' I have discussed to a great length and in a simplified manner all the main evidence available so  far to prove God's existence. I have also addressed other claims of God's existence such as gut feelings, and hearing godly voices. All have been refuted in a professional manner with clear evidence based on reason and common sense.  

bottom of page